See Below for Detailed Description
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Updated Date: Stock Protein updated on 20171018
Research areas: Epigenetics and Nuclear Signaling
Target / Protein: Hmgb1
Biologically active: Not Tested
Expression system: Yeast
Species of origin: Homo sapiens (Human)
Delivery time: 3-7 business days
Uniprot ID: P09429
AA Sequence: GKGDPKKPRGKMSSYAFFVQTCREEHKKKHPDASVNFSEFSKKCSERWKTMSAKEKGKFEDMAKADKARYEREMKTYIPPKGETKKKFKDPNAPKRPPSAFFLFCSEYRPKIKGEHPGLSIGDVAKKLGEMWNNTAADDKQPYEKKAAKLKEKYEKDIAAYRAKGKPDAAKKGVVKAEKSKKKKEEEEDEEDEEDEEEEEDEEDEDEEEDDDDE
Tag info: N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Expression Region: 2-215aa
Protein length: Full Length
MW: 26.8 kDa
Alternative Name(s): High mobility group protein 1 Short name: HMG-1
Relevance: Multifunctional redox sensitive protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus is one of the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability. Proposed to be an universal biosensor for nucleic acids. Promotes host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious signals and is involved in the coordination and integration of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the cytoplasm functions as sensor and/or chaperone for immunogenic nucleic acids implicating the activation of TLR9-mediated immune responses, and mediates autophagy. Acts as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that amplifies immune responses during tissue injury. Released to the Extracellular domain environment can bind DNA, nucleosomes, IL-1 beta, CXCL12, AGER isoform 2/sRAGE, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and activates cells through engagement of multiple surface receptors. In the Extracellular domain compartment fully reduced HMGB1 (released by necrosis) acts as a chemokine, disulfide HMGB1 (actively secreted) as a cytokine, and sulfonyl HMGB1 (released from apoptotic cells) promotes immunological tolerance (PubMed:23519706, PubMed:23446148, PubMed:23994764, PubMed:25048472). Has proangiogdenic activity (By similarity). May be involved in platelet activation (By similarity). Binds to phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamide (By similarity). Bound to RAGE mediates signaling for neuronal outgrowth (By similarity). May play a role in accumulation of expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins such as huntingtin (HTT) or TBP (PubMed:23303669, PubMed:25549101).
Reference: "A human placental cDNA clone that encodes nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG-1."Wen L., Huang J.K., Johnson B.H., Reeck G.R.Nucleic Acids Res. 17:1197-1214(1989)
Purity: Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Storage: The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself. Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20℃/-80℃. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20℃/-80℃.
Notes: Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4℃ for up to one week.