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Updated Date: Stock Protein updated on 20171018
Research areas: Immunology
Target / Protein: S100A9
Biologically active: Not Tested
Expression system: E.coli
Species of origin: Bos taurus (Bovine)
Delivery time: 3-7 business days
Uniprot ID: P28783
AA Sequence: EDKMSQMESSIETIINIFHQYSVRLGHYDTLIQKEFKQLVQKELPNFLKKQKKNEAAINEIMEDLDTNVDKQLSFEEFIMLVARLTVASHEEMHNTAPPGQGHRHGPGYGKGGSGSCSGQGSPDQGSHDLGSHGHGHGHSHGGHGHSHGGHGHSH
Tag info: N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO-tagged and C-terminal Myc-tagged
Expression Region: 2-156aa
Protein length: Full Length of Mature Protein
MW: 34.5 kDa
Alternative Name(s): BEE22 Calgranulin-B Neutrophil cytosolic 23KDA protein
Relevance: S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn2+ which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as GAPDH, NXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif.
Reference: "The 23-kilodalton protein, a substrate of protein kinase C, in bovine neutrophil cytosol is a member of the S100 family." Dianoux A.-C., Stasia M.-J., Garin J., Gagnon J., Vignais P.V. Biochemistry 31:5898-5905(1992)
Purity: Greater than 85% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Storage: The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself. Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20℃/-80℃. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20℃/-80℃.
Notes: Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4℃ for up to one week.